According to the 2017 US Census, more than thirteen million households rely on private wells for their drinking water across the country, none of which are regulated by the federal Environmental Protection Agency.
Because of this, private wells and groundwater supplies often require more care and attention than public or city water. Homeowners may need to install their own water treatment systems, which do more than simply improve the taste of their tap supply.
Today’s home water filtration systems are more than capable of turning suspect sources into crystal clear drinking water, through a combination of new and traditional technologies. If you’re looking to upgrade your well filtration, we’ve put together this list of the best water filtration systems for well water:
How do well water filtration systems work?
The best water filtration systems for well water usually adopt a multi-stage approach to filtering. This is where a water treatment system will include several different filter-types, each one intended to tackle a different category or size of groundwater contaminants.
Here are some of the most common filtration mechanisms found in multi-stage filters:
Target: large contaminants. Because large particulate matter can clog the fine membranes and cartridges of filters, it can be important to begin the filtering process with a pre-treatment stage, which removes things like rust and larger sediment from the groundwater supply.
Target: protozoa. Unlike filtration methods, purification refers to the salinization of water without removing and materials. Using a high-powered UV lamp to purify water is a simple and safe way to disrupt microorganisms on a cellular level. While UV radiation doesn’t remove viruses, bacteria, and other living protozoa from groundwater, it does render them inactive, meaning that they’re no longer able to pose a risk to your health.
Reverse osmosis membranes
Target: small and inorganic contaminants. A majority of well water filters use reverse osmosis as a major filtering component, thanks to its impressive filtering power and ability to catch all but the smallest contaminants. RO filters utilize a system’s pressure tank or mains pressure to push water through a series of ultra-fine membranes, filtering down to 0.0005 microns, or basically the size of water molecules themselves!
Carbon block filtration
Target: organic contaminants. Even filtering at the size of water itself may not be sufficient for totally pure water, however. Dissolved carbon compounds—otherwise known as Volatile Organic Chemicals (VOCs)—are often able to pass through a reverse osmosis filter. These contaminants are usually handled in home treatment systems by an activated carbon element such as a carbon block. By boosting the adsorptive capacity of highly-pure carbon material, carbon filters are effective at catching all carbon-based contaminants within the filter cartridge.